As we learned back in school days, there are two types of verbs:
–Transitive–verbs that transfer action
–Intransitive–verbs that cannot transfer action:
To be is an intransitive verb–it cannot transfer any action.
You can be grouchy (adjective modifying you);
you can be in a hurry (preposition modifying you);
you can be a sweetheart; you can be on the ball,
but you can’t be (as in transfer action to) the ball.
Other verbs are seldom used in a transitive form:
She yelled at her sister; the babies cried; the leopard leaped on the deer.
I.e.: He walked on the grass. (On the grass being a preposition used to modify the verb walked.)
Have is a transitive verb, as are most others;
you can have the ball; you can toss the ball; you can bury the ball;
the leopard can chase the deer; Dad can mow the grass, etc.
To complete their meaning, transitive verbs must have an object:
The boy kicked the fence because he was angry.
The child kicked and screamed. Intransitive.
To be transitive, he must have kicked something: the floor; his mother.
But he couldn’t scream the floor, or scream his mother.
You can scream nasty words to somebody, but it wouldn’t be the clearest phrase to use.
You can toss or hurl nasty words at somebody and be grammatically correct — but very wrong!
The passive voice is formed by turning the sentence around.
You start with a transitive verb and a direct object:
He hit the ball; she knocked the glass off the counter;
Tom slapped his sister; Mother kissed the cut on the child’s arm.
To put the object first you would say:
The ball was hit by him;
The glass was knocked off the counter by her;
His sister was slapped by Tom;
The cut on the child’s arm was kissed by its mother.
There are also indirect objects, the to whom or to what:
He hit the ball to his sister; she lent the book to her friend;
the teacher handed the papers to the students;
Mother took the children to the zoo.
It’s a little harder to form passive voice with these in the way:
The ball was hit to his sister by Tom;
the book was lent to her friend by her;
the papers were handed to the students by the teacher;
the children were taken to the zoo by Mother.
So the “by who”–the actual subject–tends to get dropped altogether.
The papers were handed to the students.
The children were taken to the zoo.
Adding another clause may confuse things even more:
While we were playing ball, Mother took the children to the zoo. Active voice, very clear.
The children were taken to the zoo while we were playing ball by Mother.
(You were standing beside Mother while playing ball?)
While playing ball, the children were taken to the zoo by Mother.
(Now the original ball players are lost from view and the children seem to have been doing that.)
While playing ball, Mother took the children to the zoo.
(In the middle of her ball game, Mom left for the zoo?)
This week I’m posting reprints of articles I’ve written for “The Craft of Writing” in our His Imprint E-newsletter and/or articles I wrote in connection with a writing class I took in 2010.